History of UCM - Faculty of Education
The origin of the current Faculty of Education (Teacher Training Centre) dates back to the creation of the Normal Schools in 19th century Spain, whose aim was to professionalise teaching. The first Normal School for men was founded by Pablo Montesino in 1839 in Madrid. It was considered as the Central Normal School because it set the standard for other institutions of its kind that were later founded. The school for females was the Central Normal School of Teachers, founded in 1858. Both centres evolved during the 19th and 20th centuries, following the dominant political trend in Spain throughout this period. Various specific reorganisations were carried out in each of these schools until 1898 when both of them were governed by the same legislation and adapted to the different educational plans for training teachers in primary education that were established at this time.
Alongside the foundation of Normal Schools, another significant precedent in the training of Spanish teachers was the creation of the Teaching School in 1909 because this centralised the teaching of the normal degree that was previously taught in the Central Normal Schools, and also the training for primary education examinations. This school, which housed a significant body of teachers and the specialisation of pedagogical and educational studies, disappeared in 1932 when the Second Spanish Republic, at a time of significant educational reforms in its first two years, took the Pedagogy studies to the University. This created, by Decree of 27 January 1932, the Pedagogy Department in the Faculty of Philosophy and Literature of the then Central University of Madrid. One year later, this Department was created in Barcelona, and despite the immediate precedent giving pedagogical studies the status of higher education, it was placed in the School of Pedagogy and was taught by Manuel Bartolomé Cossío on the Doctorate in the Faculty of Philosophy in 1904.
After the Spanish Civil War and the start of Franco’s reign, the two departments of Pedagogy in Madrid and Barcelona had to adapt, just like education in general during this period, to the ideological reforms and cleansing of the teachers. Other departments were being created in other Spanish universities and they were always within the Faculty of Philosophy and Literature. Their study plans offered two common courses for all students and three specialised courses, whether in Pedagogy, Philosophy, Psychology, Literature, Philology, Geography and History, etc. These specialities or Departments were gradually separated from their common core (from 1972) and were made into independent Faculties, and they formed part of the Faculty of Philosophy and Educational Sciences in 1975. Years later, the Royal Decree of 17 September 1991 created the current Faculty of Education (Teacher Training Centre) by combining three institutions: the Department of Educational Sciences (with Philosophy becoming and independent Faculty); the University Schools of Teacher Training connected to the Complutense University: Pablo Montesino and María Díaz-Jiménez, which came from the two Normal Schools for men and women respectively (mentioned at the beginning of this page); and the Institute of Educational Sciences (ICE), which includes pedagogical adaptation courses for graduates who want to become teachers.
It would not be worthwhile to mention the names of the professors who have played a role in the history of the institutions outlined here because, as well as there being too many to mention, our selection would not be able to mention all the important ones: directors of Normal Schools, teachers, professors, deans, etc. That is why we will only mention one teacher, Anastasio Martínez Navarro, who was Dean during the creation of the current Faculty and was one of the leaders of the project. He undoubtedly made a significant contribution to help this project avoid obstacles and to make it an harmonious, scientific and academic reality.
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