European Research Career Framework
The European Framework for Research Careers (2011) describes four broad profiles on the researchers’ career development, which are independent of any particular sector (universities, research institutions, companies or NGOs):
- Researcher R1: First Stage Researcher. Individuals doing research under supervision in industry, research institutes or universities. It includes doctoral candidates.
- Researcher R2: Recognised Researcher. PhD holders who have not yet established a significant level of independence, and researchers with an equivalent level of experience and competence.
- Researcher R3: Established Researcher. Researchers who have developed a level of independence.
- Researcher R4: Leading Researcher. Researchers leading their research area or field. It would include the team leader of a research group or head of an industry R&D laboratory. In particular disciplines as an exception, leading researchers may include individuals who operate as lone researchers.