FUNDAMENTAL (OBLIGATORIO) 36 ECTS
Many changes and initiatives have affected the Euro-Mediterranean relations and their legal aspects since the beginning of the Barcelona Process. A comprehensive overview is needed, now that the upcoming French Presidency of the Union tries to put the subject on the table, and the other member countries have used EU legal instruments to include that initiative in the framework of the Union’s Foreign and Cooperation Policy. Therefore, the possibilities of this framework must be analyzed.
The economic dimension of the Euro-Mediterranean partnership and the Neighborhood Policy is crucial. The main objective of European policies is to help improving the macroeconomic situation of the partners and neighbors, in order to enhance their general stability, to spur their attractiveness for investments, to stabilize the youth and to reduce migration flows. The Instruments of these policies are the Meda Programme, the Neighborhood Financial Instrument and Femip. The bet behind the centrality of economics in the relations between EU and its partners underpins the conviction that it commands social and political security.
The European Union [EU] keeps an intrinsic engagement and relationship with the Mediterranean Are, since it is a political organization with institutions that have been historically built on certain principles, such as grounds and values -a legacy of centuries of human evolution towards emancipating goals like Democracy, Rule of Law, Human Rights promotion and respect, Social Welfare and Peace-. This engagement is expressed in three dimensions.
- The starting point is the unquestionable fact that several EU Member States are genuine Mediterranean countries –Spain, France, Italy, Slovenia, Greece, Cyprus and Malta [Monaco, Vatican]- forming a sort of territorial “bow” at the Northern Mediterranean seaside.
- Since it is a political community of values/international organization, the EU maintain special institutionalized neighborhood relations (Neighborhood Policy [ENP] + Euro-Mediterranean Union) with all the other Mediterranean countries in different levels, according to different historical, political, economic, social and cultural reasons. These NP relations are mainly projected in specific matters concerning respectively certain regions, areas and countries at a multilateral level.
- Last but not least, now in a bilateral level, several EU Member States maintain special relations with certain Mediterranean countries/regions, also grounded on historical links of mutual –not always peaceful or harmonic- relations.
Considering the previous points, a comprehensive study of these political structures, relations, perceptions and projections would be highly useful to establish a political culture of dialogue, cooperation and mutual understanding and respect among the peoples and countries which form one of the world´s most ancient community of civilization.
The Socio-Cultural Dimensions is about the identity and difference of the Mediterranean culture in the context of, and by contrast with, the European culture in general. The main issue consists in showing that the European culture has been circulating in a similar way, but with particular characteristics, in its different geographic and historic scenes. This identity/difference is its fundamental aspect, which makes it a paradigmatic ambit of the multiculturalism. In this sense, the Euro Mediterranean culture could serve as perfect testing field to our contemporary world, where the recognizing of the citizen rights has to conceive with equal respect to the different traditions.
The Unit “Strategy, Security and Defense” will focus on the Mediterranean as a region of special concern to the Euro-Mediterranean common security. It will address the strategic changes and transformations implemented in the Mediterranean region during the last two decades in terms of security and defense. The Mediterranean has increased its importance gaining a central position since the end of the Cold War. During the nineties a number of international organizations, including the European Union (EU), developed different dialogues with third Mediterranean countries in matters of security and defense.
If we want the Euro-Mediterranean cooperation to succeed we need to address strategic goals common to all Euro-Mediterranean Partners and aim to strengthen the cohesion of our Euro-Mediterranean policy through the building up of a more peaceful environment.
In short, two general issues will be studied:
Firstly, the origins of the security and defense challenges are to be identified, namely geographical areas of instability and risk factors. In this regard, students will address the political, economic, social, military, cultural and religious conditions existing in the identified areas of instability, and think about the basic risk factors coming from these conditions that have a great impact on the Mediterranean and Euro-Mediterranean security.
Secondly, students will look at the means that different actors in the region – nationals and internationals – have in launching political initiatives leading up to various instruments to implement them and thus contributing to foster security in the region. They will discuss initiatives taken by the EU, NATO, the OSCE and other international organizations and question their results. In this regard, additional confidence and partnership building measures could be elaborated to practice students’ awareness for the critical Mediterranean security region.
MATERIA 1.1: EUROPEAN UNION AND MEDITERRANEAN
- Marco Legal y Aspectos Jurídicos en la Unión Europea y el Mediterráneo Legal Framework and Aspects of the European Union and the Mediterranean Departments: Hª del Derecho e instituciones
- Aspectos Económicos Básicos en la Unión Europea y el Mediterráneo The Economy of the European Union and the MediterraneanDepartments: Economía Aplicada I (Economía Internacional y Desarrollo)
- Dimensiones Políticas Fundamentales en la Unión Europea y el Mediterráneo The Political Dimensions of the European Union and the Mediterranean Departments: Ciencia Política II
- Dimensiones Sociales y Culturales: Estructura Social y Diversidad Cultural Social and Cultural Dimensions: Social Structure and Cultural Diversity Departments: Antropología; Sociología II (Economía Humana y Problación)
- Estrategia, Seguridad y Defensa: La Unión Europea y el Mediterráneo Strategy, Security and Defense: The European Union and the Mediterranean Departments: Sociología II (Economía Humana y Problación)
MATERIA 1.2: STRATEGIES OF COOPERATION, DEVELOPMENT & INTEGRATION
The European Union Development Policy aims at eradicating poverty, fostering democracy and human rights, and promoting harmonious and progressive integration of developing countries in the world economy. Development is also key to the so-called Wider Europe-Neighbourhood Policy, and a specific area of work in the Barcelona Process, which aims at creating a Partnership between the EU and the Mediterranean Countries. These policies are supported by a number of instruments, such as Financial and Technical Assistance, trade agreements, and several programs intended to create networks of civil society and decentralized actors. Nevertheless, these programs are faced up with a number of challenges in order to achieve its stated aims: the course will analyze the problems of policy coherence among development aid programs and trade, migration, security or other foreign policy interests, and the obstacles posed by the political and social structures in the partners of the EuroMed economic and political space.
Migration flows are not new in Human history. What is new is the volume of migration flows and stocks that have taken place mostly since the decade of the 80s. Changes in the technology of communication and transportation have facilitated migration flows through a reduction of cost and time of movement. Inequalities in the distribution of resources and life opportunities are one important “push” factor in the “sending” countries. And aging of population together with lack of labor force are a “pull” factor in “receiving” countries. Theoretically everybody should “win” on migration, both sending and receiving countries, but problems arise regarding the social integration and adjustments between immigrants and autochthonous populations.
- Estrategias de Cooperación y Desarrollo Cooperation and Development Strategies Departments: Economía Aplicada I (Economía Internacional y Desarrollo)
- Estrategias de Integración: Migraciones y Políticas Migratoria Integration Strategies. Migrations and Migration Policies Departments: Sociología II (Economía Humana y Problación)
ESPECIALIZACIÓN (OPTATIVO) 24 ECTS
El Módulo 2, avanzado y optativo, ofrece al alumnado la posibilidad de escoger entre distintos ámbitos temáticos que, desde diversas disciplinas, analizan la realidad de la Unión Europea en relación con el Mediterráneo. Los contenidos se desarrollarán en torno a cuatro ejes, considerados definitorios de esta realidad. El módulo integra cuatro materias que desarrollará los siguientes aspectos: 1) Historical, Cultural and Social Bases; 2) Economic and Ecological Bases; 3) Maghreb and Middle East; 4) Strategies of Cooperation, Development and Integration
MATERIA 2.1: HISTORICAL, CULTURAL AND SOCIAL BASIS
History of mankind shows that if seas separate they also unite. The Mediterranean has been a unity at least from the beginning of Ancient Empires and certainly was unified by Rome in both directions: North / South and East / West. The division of the Roman Empire produced a first split East / West that continues under the skin of Catholic / Orthodox religion. Later Islam produced another split, North / South, which continues too hiding deeper socio-economic differences. Today the economic split between Spain and Morocco, about 1 to 12 in per capita GDP, is one of the greatest in the world.
This Unit has three main goals: to show the Mediterranean as the source of Western Civilization, to present the essential cultural and social unity of the Mediterranean, and to analyze the present splits and conflicts.
- El Cristianismo y el Islam: El Mediterráneo como Frontera y como Puente Cristianism and Islam: The Mediterranean as Frontier and as Bridge Departments: Historia del Derecho y de las Instituciones
- La División Norte-Sur y la Organización Político-Administrativa del Mediterráneo The North-South Divide and the Political-Administrative Organization Departments: Economía Aplicada I (Economía Internacional y Desarrollo),
MATERIA 2.2. ECONOMIC AND ECOLOGICAL BASES
An increasing awareness that our global ecological life-support system is endangered, make us realize that decisions made on the basis of local, narrow, short-term criteria can produce disastrous results globally and in the long run. There is also a growing acknowledgement that traditional economic and ecological models and concepts fall short in their ability to deal with global ecological problems.
Throughout history humans have both affected, and been affected by, the natural world. While a good deal has been lost due to human actions, much of what is valued about the environment has been preserved and protected through human action. While many uncertainties remain, there is a realization that environmental problems are becoming more and more complex, especially as issues arise on a more global level, such as that of atmospheric pollution or global warming.
This program provides studies in the environment and natural resources through a holistic and interdisciplinary approach. Students’ programs and research will prepare them to pursue independent research aimed at solving the complex issues facing the world environment learning about varied approaches and using a variety of tool and methods.
- Economía de los Recursos Naturales (energía, contaminación y Cambio Climático) Natural Resource Economics (Energy, Pollution and Climate Change) Departments: Economía Aplicada V; Fundamentos del Análisis Económico I (Analisis Económico)
- Elementos para un Modelo de Integración Económica del Mediterráneo Issues for a New Model of Economic Integration in the Mediterranean Departments: Economía Aplicada V
MATERIA 2.3: MAGHREB AND MIDDLE EAST
The Mediterranean area has been permanently in the spotlight, especially in recent years due to the end of bipolarity and wider disparity between the Northern and Southern countries. Both internal and international dynamics for the countries of the Maghreb and The Middle East, as well as the evolution of the European Union, justify the study of this region. Nowadays new factors and challenges emerge in the area, with relations improving between both shores as well as improvements within each country. Moves both at an international as well as a region level have caused the region to become more heterogeneous and at the same time created substantial complementary nexuses.
The recent history of the Maghreb and the Middle East is intimately linked to the processes of national construction and the different degrees of attachment to external actors. In order to analyze the Arabic regional system, it is important to consider factors such as internal character -political systems, intra-regional development, socioeconomics, religion, energy wealth, conflict etc. – and international factors by virtue of its geography (point of intersection between three continents), of its geology (by the importance of its energy resources that make up 65% of the world’s petroleum reserves and 25% gas reserves) and by its geotheology (as it is the origin of the Jewish, Christian and Muslim monotheisms).
The end of the bipolar system appeared to be a perfect opportunity for the reshaping of a new international order in the Maghreb and the Middle East, with significant moves of planning and intervention. With regards to de facto accomplishments, these initiatives have been losing their dynamism; however, this does not mean that these countries are no longer present on the international agenda, as well as in domestic politics of a wide range of countries, becoming an active element in the political discourse. The countries of this area are sunk in a process, embryonic and fragmented, of partial reforms with a modest level of success in confronting their main challenges such as democratization, human rights, the status of women and their role in economic globalization.
It is inevitable that The Maghreb and Middle East scene will have a relevant position in the world, due to its potential in terms of culture, energy, social, geographic and demographic characteristics, throughout the XXI century. For this reason, this module is fundamental for those who want to deepen their understanding of the Euro-Mediterranean area.
- Cultura, Religión, Identidad Nacional y Movimientos Ciudadanos Culture, Religion, National Identity and Citizens’ OrganisationsDepartments: Antropología
- Relaciones Internacionales y Política Exterior en el Área del Maghreb y Oriente Próximo International Relations and Foreign Policy in the Maghreb and Middle East Departments: Economía Aplicada V