In vivo hemodynamic recordings

In vivo hemodynamic recordings (systemic and pulmonary artery pressure, cardiac output, pulsioximetry).

Systolic, diastolic and mean systemic arterial pressure (sSAP, dSAP and mSAP) is measured by cannulation of the carotid artery in closed chest animals and for the pulmonary arterial pressure (sPAP, dPAP and mSAP) a catheter is placed in the pulmonary artery through the right ventricle in open chest animals.

Cardiac output describes the volume of blood pumped by the heart per unit time. It is the product of the heart rate and the stroke volume. The cardiac output is measured using the thermodilution technique (introducing a predetermined volume of cold saline by the yugular vein and the thermocouple probe by the carotid artery)

Pulse oximetry is a noninvasive method for monitoring oxygen saturation (SO2). The saturation is analysed using a clip located in the foot of the animal.